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Science and Values: A Two-way Direction

Ratti, Emanuele and Russo, Federica (2024) Science and Values: A Two-way Direction. [Preprint]

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Abstract

In the science and values literature, scholars have shown how science is influenced and shaped by values, often in opposition to the ‘value free’ ideal of science. In this paper, we aim to contribute to the science and values literature by showing that the relation between science and values flows not only from values into scientific practice, but also from (allegedly neutral) science to values themselves. The extant literature in the ‘science and values’ field focuses by and large on reconstructing, post hoc, how values have influenced science; our reconstruction of the case studies, instead, aims to show that scientific concepts and methods, because of specific identifiable characteristics, can promote some values rather than (or at the expense of) others. We explain this bidirectional relation in analogy to debates on the normativity of technical artifacts and on feminist approaches in science, and we illustrate our claims with cases from the health sciences and machine learning. While our arguments in this paper also draw on post hoc reconstructions, we intend to show where we should engage not only with the question of whether a practice is value-laden, but also how specific conceptual and methodological choices can influence values down the road. All in all, these considerations expand the ways in which philosophers can contribute to more value-aware scientific practices.


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Item Type: Preprint
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCID
Ratti, Emanuelemnl.ratti@gmail.com0000-0003-1409-8240
Russo, Federica
Keywords: science and values; health sciences; machine learning; feminist philosophy of science; philosophy of technology
Subjects: General Issues > Feminist Approaches
Specific Sciences > Medicine > Health and Disease
Specific Sciences > Artificial Intelligence > Machine Learning
General Issues > Science and Policy
General Issues > Technology
General Issues > Values In Science
Depositing User: Dr Emanuele Ratti
Date Deposited: 08 Jan 2024 13:13
Last Modified: 08 Jan 2024 13:13
Item ID: 22934
Subjects: General Issues > Feminist Approaches
Specific Sciences > Medicine > Health and Disease
Specific Sciences > Artificial Intelligence > Machine Learning
General Issues > Science and Policy
General Issues > Technology
General Issues > Values In Science
Date: 2024
URI: https://philsci-archive-dev.library.pitt.edu/id/eprint/22934

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