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Sins of Inquiry: How to Criticize Scientific Pursuits

DiMarco, Marina and Khalifa, Kareem (2021) Sins of Inquiry: How to Criticize Scientific Pursuits. [Preprint]

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Abstract

Criticism is a staple of the scientific enterprise and of the social epistemology of science. Philosophical discussions of criticism have traditionally focused on its roles in relation to objectivity, confirmation, and theory choice. However, attention to criticism and to criticizability should also inform our thinking about scientific pursuits: the allocation of resources with the aim of developing scientific tools and ideas. In this paper, we offer an account of scientific pursuitworthiness which takes criticizability as its starting point. We call this the apokritic model of pursuit. Its core ideas are that pursuits are practices governed by norms for asking and answering questions, and that criticism arises from the breach of these norms. We illustrate and advertise our approach using examples from institutional grant review, neuroscience, and sociology. We show that the apokritic model can unify several indices of criticizability, that it can account for the importance of criticizing pursuits in scientific practice, and that it can offer ameliorative advice to erstwhile pursuers.


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Item Type: Preprint
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCID
DiMarco, Marinamarina.dimarco@pitt.edu
Khalifa, Kareemkkhalifa@middlebury.edu
Keywords: pursuit; pursuitworthiness; criticism; apokritic norms; questions; inquiry
Subjects: General Issues > Feminist Approaches
General Issues > Science and Society
General Issues > Science and Policy
General Issues > Social Epistemology of Science
General Issues > Values In Science
Depositing User: Unnamed user with email marinarosedimarco@gmail.com
Date Deposited: 12 Dec 2021 01:16
Last Modified: 12 Dec 2021 01:16
Item ID: 20007
Subjects: General Issues > Feminist Approaches
General Issues > Science and Society
General Issues > Science and Policy
General Issues > Social Epistemology of Science
General Issues > Values In Science
Date: 2021
URI: https://philsci-archive-dev.library.pitt.edu/id/eprint/20007

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