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Pharmacovigilance as Personalized Medicine. In: Chiara Beneduce and Marta Bertolaso (eds.) Personalized Medicine: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Complexity, Springer Nature.

De Pretis, Francesco and Landes, Juergen and Peden, William and Osimani, Barbara (2021) Pharmacovigilance as Personalized Medicine. In: Chiara Beneduce and Marta Bertolaso (eds.) Personalized Medicine: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Complexity, Springer Nature. [Preprint]

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Abstract

Personalized medicine relies on two points: 1) causal knowledge about the possible effects of X in a given statistical
population; 2) assignment of the given individual to a suitable reference class. Regarding point 1, standard approaches
to causal inference are generally considered to be characterized by a trade-off between how confidently one can
establish causality in any given study (internal validity) and extrapolating such knowledge to specific target groups
(external validity). Regarding point 2, it is uncertain which reference class leads to the most reliable inferences.
Instead, pharmacovigilance focuses on both elements of the individual prediction at the same time, that is, the
establishment of the possible causal link between a given drug and an observed adverse event, and the identification
of possible subgroups, where such links may arise. We develop an epistemic framework that exploits the joint
contribution of different dimensions of evidence and allows one to deal with the reference class problem not only by
relying on statistical data about covariances, but also by drawing on causal knowledge. That is, the probability that a
given individual will face a given side effect, will probabilistically depend on his characteristics and the plausible
causal models in which such features become relevant. The evaluation of the causal models is grounded on the
available evidence and theory.


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Item Type: Preprint
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCID
De Pretis, Francescofrank.depretis@gmail.com0000-0001-8395-7833
Landes, Juergenjuergen_landes@yahoo.de0000-0003-3105-6624
Peden, Williamw.j.peden@durham.ac.uk0000-0002-3474-7861
Osimani, Barbarabarbaraosimani@gmail.com0000-0001-5212-9525
Keywords: Causal inference, Causal Models, Bayesian epistemology, pharmacovigilance, personalized medicine, internal validity, external validity, extrapolation,subgroup analysis
Subjects: General Issues > Causation
Specific Sciences > Artificial Intelligence
General Issues > Confirmation/Induction
General Issues > Evidence
General Issues > Formal Learning Theory
Specific Sciences > Medicine
Specific Sciences > Probability/Statistics
General Issues > Science and Policy
Depositing User: Prof. Barbara Osimani
Date Deposited: 25 Jan 2021 16:10
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2021 16:10
Item ID: 18634
Subjects: General Issues > Causation
Specific Sciences > Artificial Intelligence
General Issues > Confirmation/Induction
General Issues > Evidence
General Issues > Formal Learning Theory
Specific Sciences > Medicine
Specific Sciences > Probability/Statistics
General Issues > Science and Policy
Date: 2021
URI: https://philsci-archive-dev.library.pitt.edu/id/eprint/18634

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