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Epistemic Gains and Epistemic Games: Reliability and higher order evidence in Medicine and Pharmacology.

Osimani, Barbara (2020) Epistemic Gains and Epistemic Games: Reliability and higher order evidence in Medicine and Pharmacology. A. LaCaze, B. Osimani (eds.), Uncertainty in Pharmacology, Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science 338.. pp. 345-372.

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Abstract

In this paper I analyse the dissent around evidence standards in medicine and pharmacology as a result of distinct ways to address epistemic losses in our game with nature and the scientific ecosystem: an “elitist” and a “pluralist” approach. The former is focused on reliability as minimisation of random and systematic error, and is grounded on a categorical approach to causal assessment, whereas the latter is more focused on the high context-sensitivity of causation in medicine and in the soft sciences in general, and favours probabilistic approaches to scientific inference, as better equipped for defeasibility of causal inference in such domains. I then present a system for probabilistic causal assessment from heterogenous evidence that makes justice of concerns from both positions, while also incorporating “higher order evidence” (evidence/information about the evidence itself) in hypothesis confirmation.


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Item Type: Published Article or Volume
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCID
Osimani, Barbarabarbaraosimani@gmail.com0000-0001-5212-9525
Keywords: Causal inference, systematic error, random error, contextualism, reliability, relevance, causal holism
Subjects: General Issues > Causation
Specific Sciences > Medicine > Clinical Trials
Specific Sciences > Medicine > Epidemiology
General Issues > Evidence
General Issues > Reductionism/Holism
General Issues > Science and Policy
Depositing User: Prof. Barbara Osimani
Date Deposited: 30 Dec 2020 15:27
Last Modified: 30 Dec 2020 15:27
Item ID: 18537
Journal or Publication Title: A. LaCaze, B. Osimani (eds.), Uncertainty in Pharmacology, Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science 338.
Publisher: Springer Nature
DOI or Unique Handle: https://doi.org/10.1007/978- 3- 030- 29179- 2_15
Subjects: General Issues > Causation
Specific Sciences > Medicine > Clinical Trials
Specific Sciences > Medicine > Epidemiology
General Issues > Evidence
General Issues > Reductionism/Holism
General Issues > Science and Policy
Date: 2020
Page Range: pp. 345-372
URI: https://philsci-archive-dev.library.pitt.edu/id/eprint/18537

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