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Probability of Disease Extinction or Outbreak in a Stochastic Epidemic Model for West Nile Virus Dynamics in Birds

Maliyoni, Milliward (2020) Probability of Disease Extinction or Outbreak in a Stochastic Epidemic Model for West Nile Virus Dynamics in Birds. [Preprint]

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Abstract

Thresholds for disease extinction provide essential information for the prevention and control of diseases. In this paper, a stochastic epidemic model, a continuous-time Markov chain, for the transmission dynamics of West Nile virus in birds is developed based on the assumptions of its analogous deterministic model. The branching process is applied to derive the extinction threshold for the stochastic model and conditions for disease extinction or persistence. The probability of disease extinction computed from the branching process is shown to be in good agreement with the probability approximated from numerical simulations. The disease dynamics of both models are com-
pared to ascertain the effect of demographic stochasticity on West Nile virus dynamics. Analytical and numerical results show differences in model predictions and asymptotic dynamics between stochastic and deterministic models that are crucial for the prevention of disease outbreaks. It is found that there is a high probability of disease extinction if the disease emerges from exposed mosquitoes unlike if it emerges from infectious mosquitoes and birds. Finite-time to disease extinction is estimated using sample paths and it is shown that the epidemic duration is shortest if the disease is introduced by exposed mosquitoes.


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Item Type: Preprint
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCID
Maliyoni, Milliwardmmaliyoni@cc.ac.mw0000-0003-4680-6715
Keywords: Markov chain, West Nile virus, Multitype branching process, Finite-time extinction
Subjects: Specific Sciences > Mathematics > Applicability
Depositing User: Dr. Milliward Maliyoni
Date Deposited: 17 Aug 2020 14:12
Last Modified: 17 Aug 2020 14:12
Item ID: 17997
Subjects: Specific Sciences > Mathematics > Applicability
Date: 17 August 2020
URI: https://philsci-archive-dev.library.pitt.edu/id/eprint/17997

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