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Evidence and Inductive Inference

Climenhaga, Nevin (2020) Evidence and Inductive Inference. The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Evidence, edited by Maria Lasonen-Aarnio & Clayton Littlejohn.

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Abstract

This chapter presents a typology of the different kinds of inductive inferences we can draw from our evidence, based on the explanatory relationship between evidence and conclusion. Drawing on the literature on graphical models of explanation, I divide inductive inferences into (a) downwards inferences, which proceed from cause to effect, (b) upwards inferences, which proceed from effect to cause, and (c) sideways inferences, which proceed first from effect to cause and then from that cause to an additional effect. I further distinguish between direct and indirect forms of downwards and upwards inferences. I then show how we can subsume canonical forms of inductive inference mentioned in the literature, such as inference to the best explanation, enumerative induction, and analogical inference, under this typology. Along the way, I explore connections with probability and confirmation, epistemic defeat, the relation between abduction and enumerative induction, the compatibility of IBE and Bayesianism, and theories of epistemic justification.


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Item Type: Published Article or Volume
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCID
Climenhaga, Nevinnevin.climenhaga@acu.edu.au0000-0002-7376-8788
Additional Information: The Routledge Handbook volume is forthcoming.
Keywords: Evidence, Inference, Induction, Explanation, Causal networks, Abduction, Analogy
Subjects: Specific Sciences > Mathematics > Epistemology
Specific Sciences > Mathematics > Explanation
General Issues > Causation
General Issues > Confirmation/Induction
General Issues > Evidence
Specific Sciences > Cognitive Science > Learning and Memory
Specific Sciences > Probability/Statistics
General Issues > Structure of Theories
Depositing User: Nevin Climenhaga
Date Deposited: 10 Jul 2020 14:47
Last Modified: 10 Jul 2020 14:47
Item ID: 17450
Journal or Publication Title: The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Evidence, edited by Maria Lasonen-Aarnio & Clayton Littlejohn
Publisher: Routledge
Subjects: Specific Sciences > Mathematics > Epistemology
Specific Sciences > Mathematics > Explanation
General Issues > Causation
General Issues > Confirmation/Induction
General Issues > Evidence
Specific Sciences > Cognitive Science > Learning and Memory
Specific Sciences > Probability/Statistics
General Issues > Structure of Theories
Date: 2020
URI: https://philsci-archive-dev.library.pitt.edu/id/eprint/17450

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