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What Is a Hologenomic Adaptation? Emergent Individuality and Inter-Identity in Multispecies Systems

Suárez, Javier and Triviño, Vanessa (2020) What Is a Hologenomic Adaptation? Emergent Individuality and Inter-Identity in Multispecies Systems. Frontiers in Psychology, 11 (187). ISSN 1664-1078

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Abstract

Contemporary biological research has suggested that some host–microbiome multispecies systems (referred to as “holobionts”) can in certain circumstances evolve as unique biological individual, thus being a unit of selection in evolution. If this is so, then it is arguably the case that some biological adaptations have evolved at the level of the multispecies system, what we call hologenomic adaptations. However, no research has yet been devoted to investigating their nature, or how these adaptations can be distinguished from adaptations at the species-level (genomic adaptations). In this paper, we cover this gap by investigating the nature of hologenomic adaptations. By drawing on the case of the evolution of sanguivory diet in vampire bats, we argue that a trait constitutes a hologenomic adaptation when its evolution can only be explained if the holobiont is considered the biological individual that manifests this adaptation, while the bacterial taxa that bear the trait are only opportunistic beneficiaries of it. We then use the philosophical notions of emergence and inter-identity to explain the nature of this form of individuality and argue why it is special of holobionts. Overall, our paper illustrates how the use of philosophical concepts can illuminate scientific discussions, in the trend of what has recently been called metaphysics of biology.


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Item Type: Published Article or Volume
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCID
Suárez, Javier
Triviño, Vanessa
Keywords: holobiont hologenome microbiome biological individuality adaptation emergence inter-identity metaphysics of biology
Subjects: General Issues > Scientific Metaphysics
Specific Sciences > Biology
Specific Sciences > Biology > Evolutionary Theory
General Issues > Causation
Specific Sciences > Complex Systems
Depositing User: Dr Javier Suárez
Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2020 03:05
Last Modified: 28 Jun 2020 03:05
Item ID: 17374
Journal or Publication Title: Frontiers in Psychology
Official URL: http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00187
DOI or Unique Handle: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00187
Subjects: General Issues > Scientific Metaphysics
Specific Sciences > Biology
Specific Sciences > Biology > Evolutionary Theory
General Issues > Causation
Specific Sciences > Complex Systems
Date: February 2020
Volume: 11
Number: 187
ISSN: 1664-1078
URI: https://philsci-archive-dev.library.pitt.edu/id/eprint/17374

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