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Marsupial Lions & Methodological Omnivory: Function, Success and Reconstruction in Paleobiology

Currie, Adrian (2015) Marsupial Lions & Methodological Omnivory: Function, Success and Reconstruction in Paleobiology. [Preprint]

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Abstract

Historical scientists frequently face incomplete data, and lack direct experimental access to their targets. This has led some philosophers and scientists to be pessimistic about the epistemic potential of the historical sciences. And yet, historical science often produces plausible, sophisticated hypotheses. I explain this capacity to generate knowledge in the face of apparent evidential scarcity by examining recent work on Thylacoleo carnifex, the ‘marsupial lion’. Here, we see two important methodological features. First, historical scientists are methodological omnivores, that is, they construct purpose-built epistemic tools tailored to generate evidence about highly specific targets. This allows them to produce multiple streams of independent evidence and thus maximize their epistemic reach. Second, investigative scaffolding: research proceeds in a piece-meal fashion, information only gaining evidential relevance once certain hypotheses are well supported. I illustrate scaffolding in a discussion of the nature of functional ascription in paleobiology. Frequently, different senses of ‘function’ are not discriminated during paleobiological investigation—something which can mar adaptationist investigations of extant organisms. However, I argue that, due to scaffolding, conflating senses of ‘function’ can be the right thing to do. Coarse grained functional hypotheses are required before it is clear what evidence could discriminate between more fine-grained ones. I draw on omnivory and scaffolding to argue that pessimists make a bad empirical bet. It is a bad idea to bet against the epistemic fortunes of such opportunistic and resourceful scientists, especially when we have reason to think we will systematically underestimate the amount of evidence ultimately available to them.


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Item Type: Preprint
Creators:
CreatorsEmailORCID
Currie, Adrian
Subjects: Specific Sciences > Biology
Specific Sciences > Earth Sciences
Depositing User: Dr Adrian Currie
Date Deposited: 30 Apr 2018 00:56
Last Modified: 30 Apr 2018 00:56
Item ID: 14618
Official URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10539...
Subjects: Specific Sciences > Biology
Specific Sciences > Earth Sciences
Date: 2015
URI: https://philsci-archive-dev.library.pitt.edu/id/eprint/14618

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